St. Lawrence River

The St. Lawrence River (French: Fleuve Saint-Laurent) is significant in the middle latitudes of North America. Its headwaters begin flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the North American Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin. The river traverses the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec and the U.S. state of New York. It restricts part of the international boundary between Canada and the United States. It also provides the foundation for the commercial St. Lawrence Seaway.

The St. Lawrence River has been named the best bass fishery in the world by Bassmaster Magazine’s 100 Best Bass Lakes in 2022

The river has been called a variety of names by local First Nations. Beginning in the 16th century, French explorers visited what is now Canada. They gave the river names such as the Grand fleuve de Hochelaga and the Grande rivière du Canada, where fleuve and rivière are two French words (fleuve being a river that flows into the sea).

The river's name has been used since 1604, when Samuel de Champlain recorded it on a map. Champlain opted for the names Grande Riviere de sainct Laurens and Fleuve sainct Laurens in his writings, supplanting the earlier names. In contemporary French, the name is rendered as the fleuve Saint-Laurent. Jacques Cartier originally applied the name Saint-Laurent (Saint Lawrence) to the eponymous bay upon his arrival into the region on the 10th of August, the feast day for Saint Lawrence in 1535.

Today, the river is still known by Indigenous nations by several distinct names. Innu-aimun, the language of Nitassinan, refers to it as Wepistukujaw Sipo/Wepìstùkwiyaht sīpu; the Abenaki call it Moliantegok/Moliantekw ("Montréal River"), Kchitegw/Ktsitekw/Gicitegw ("Great River"), or Oss8genaizibo/Ws8genaisibo/Wsogenaisibo ("River of the Algonquins"); the Mohawk refer to it in Kanienʼkéha as Roiatatokenti, Raoteniateara, Ken’tarókwen, or Kaniatarowanénhne; the Tuscarora call it Kahnawáˀkye or Kaniatarowanenneh ("Big Water Current"); the Algonquins (or Omàmiwininiwak) call it "the Walking Path" or Magtogoek or Kitcikanii sipi, the "Large Water River"; the Huron-Wendats refer to it as Lada8anna or Laooendaooena; and, the Atikamekw of Nitaskinan refer to it as Micta sipi ("Huge River").

Upper Canada

The Province of Upper Canada (French: Province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included modern-day Southern Ontario and Northern Ontario areas in the Pays d'en Haut, which had formed part of New France, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay. The "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes, mainly above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) to the northeast.

Upper Canada was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who often were granted land to settle in Upper Canada. Already populated by Indigenous peoples, land for settlement in Upper Canada was made by treaties between the new British government and the Indigenous, exchanging land for one-time payments or annuities. The new province was characterized by its British way of life, including a bicameral parliament and separate civil and criminal law, rather than mixed as in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire. The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada. The United States attempted to capture Upper Canada, but the war ended with the situation unchanged.

The colony's government came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact," who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. The representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841, when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada.

Upper Canada